Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime
The International Atomic Energy Agency has its origins in President Dwight Eisenhower’s Atoms for Peace address to the United Nations General Assembly in 1953. The speech touched on the points that became the cornerstones of the Agency, such as its place in the United Nations system and the development of nuclear energy for peaceful uses. The agency was founded in 1957 as a result of this initial push by the American president. The IAEA has a statute, which requires that it shall report to the UN General Assembly annually and to the UN Security Council, when there are breaches to nuclear agreements under its authority. However, this disclosure power has not proved effective in preventing potential violations by Iran and North Korea. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which is enforced by the IAEA, is the cornerstone of the nuclear nonproliferation regime. The treaty is designed to halt the development and the spread of nuclear weapons by verifying and keeping track of countries’ nuclear activities. The monitoring safeguards of the treaty were strengthened in 1997 by an additional protocol that was aimed at enhancing the Agency’s ability to verify a country’s adherence to the treaty.